The site includes three burial caves, with some 23 containers for human bones.
The tomb was found near the town of Modi'in, where the family leader of the Maccabees, also known as the Hasmoneans, revolted against the Greek Seleucids in about 170 BCE.
A spokeswoman for Israel's Antiquities Authority said the find was the first archaeological proof of the ancient events that are celebrated during the Chanukah holiday.
She said a number of the burial urns had Jewish inscriptions in Hebrew, adding that one had most of the word "Hashmonaim," the Hebrew for Hasmonean, on it.
The tomb was discovered three days earlier, but the find was not made public until archaeologists studied the bones, which were then passed on to religious authorities for burial.
Ultra-religious Jews clashed with police near the site Thursday of last week, in an attempt to stop the continued excavations, saying it was sacrilegious to disturb Jewish remains.
The Antiquities Authority and Public Works Authority decided that day to suspend road construction work for two weeks, until the area could be further excavated.
The officials also said they would seek to have the proposed route of the road altered in order to preserve the site.